Исторический атлас

Десять колен


Библиография

  • Monumentum Georg Morgenstierne - Issue 21 - Page 22

  • Memoir of a Map of the Countries comprehended between the Black Sea and the Caspian; with an account of the Caucasian nations, and vocabularies of their languages

    Printed for J. Edwards in Pall-Mall London 1788

    Pages 6 and 29

  • The bibliotheca: a selection Page 52

The lost "Ten Tribes" of Israel were established in Turan by the Persian King Cambyses (6thC.BC) who conquered the Crimean lands of the Scythians and established military posts there. This army consisted of Medes and Israelites (Chwolson 1866) whose ancestors had first been settled in Median coasts of the Caspian Sea by the Assyrian king Shalmaneser in 727BC.

According to Firkovich, by the time of Cambyses the Ten Tribes were on the East Caspian shores spreading to the East. Firkovich says some of them were post in Crimea, where according to Herodotus the Scythians were taking the "Amazon women" as brides. Phanagoria was established not long after that.

As a result of the Persian Empire's outposts and garrisons in Turan, the Cimmerian Scythians soon gave way to the Hunno-Bulgars, the ancestors of all Turkic nations, the Karaims being no exception. The name of the Hunno-Bulgars "was remembered in later Zoroastrian books as Hyon, Hayun, and known to the Greeks in Khionitai, Hermikhiones, and Kermikhiones. The shortened form occurred in Khotanese huna-, Sogdian xwn. Old Indian huna- and western Greek Ounnoi and Latin hunni." (Monumentum Georg Morgenstierne) Etymologically the names pertain to the number 10 referring to the confederation of (in the folkore of the Karaylar at least), Turkicized Israelite "Ten Tribes" which dominated Central Eurasia until the time of the Khazars.

Northern Huns of Kazakhstan and Southern Huns of Kashgar are first mentioned in Chinese records being given a common origin in China's ancient past. The majority of the "Ten Tribes" certainly belonged to Y-Haplogroup PQR forcing ancient Cimmerian-Scythic Y-Haplogroup C to the Northeast by wedging themselves in between Uralic Y-Haplogroup N and Chinese Y-Haplogroup O. Yet, by the end of the 1st century AD, the Chinese General Ban Chao had driven the Northern Huns to relocate their base to western Kazakhstan.

The North Shanyu was defeated by Geng Kui during the Battle of Ikh Bayan, on an expedition sent by Dou Xian in February 91AD, and the Hunnoi are first mentioned by Tacitus in the area of Atyrau (or southern Bashkiria) in the same year. The last ruler of these Northern Huns known to the Chinese was his brother and sole heir Yuchujian Shanyu who was killed by generals Ren Shang and Wang Fu in 93AD. Nevertheless, the Northern Huns did not disappear from history. By AD 139, the geographer Ptolemy recorded that the "Huni" (Χοῦνοι or Χουνοἰ) were between the Bastarnae and the Roxolani in the Pontic area under the rule of Suni (Shanyu). They were led by Maukar son of Nimrod son of Tana from Kushan (descendants of legendary Iapetus who had been exiled to Tartary) following a legendary deer-hunt, where they discovered the Alan Gahan Dulo's Finno-Ugrians and established an alliance dislodging the Wends or Vh'ndur. Some migrated south of the Caucasus in the second half of the 4-th century AD while most of whom fled to the west. The bulk of the Huns remained in greater Bashkiria rather than cross the Volga delta into what is now Kalmykia.

Maukar was succeeded by Kungas, then Varhran, Grumbat, Kidara, Brahmi Buddhatala (Balamber), Baltazár, Alypbi, Uldin, Donatus, Charaton, Octar, Rugila, Mundzuk, Bleda, Attila (434AD–453AD), Ellac (453AD-454AD), then Δεγγιζίχ who furnished Majorian's army with the Hun general Tuldila (457AD-458AD).

In 463AD, the migration of Y-Haplogroup J Caucasian Avars into Dagestan from Abarshahr (Khurasan) displaced the Sabirs (Kipchak speakers of SubarTu) who in turn pushed the Hunno-Bulgars and their Finno-Ugrian subjects north out of Kuban Maeotia back to the Volga Don region. At this point (according to Priscos Rhetor and Zakarias Rhetor) the Hun/Ugors under the rule of Δεγγιζίχ agreed with Byzantium to take the lands of the Άκατίρων around Phanagoria which became the new base in Europe for the Turkicized Ten Tribes.

Δεγγιζίχ was succeeded by Ήρνάχ (469-503) then Диураш then Татра. By the end of their reigns, the Hunno-Bulgars had expanded from Phanagoria to rule what the Byzantines recognized as the Crimean Kingdom of Hunno-Bulgars.

Of the Hunno-Bulgar's cultural artifacts still preserved today, one is the Calendar known as the Uluh Ata Sanavi. Another is the religion of the Crimean Hun State was a mixture of Tura (the Old turkic Customary Tribal Laws) with Tengri Shamanism and Greek Hypsistarianism with increasing Christian influence known today as Karaimism (not to be confused with Karaite Judasm). Gahan Grod was converted to Christianity in this period and began melting the idols of his people to use the silver and gold as currency. He was overthrown by his brother Gahan Mugel in 528AD father of Khinialus father of Sinion. Sinion was succeeded by Gahan Ζάνδιλχος (551-558) then Zabergan. The Avars took control briefly before Patria Onoguria was liberated by the Gokturks to become the On-Oq (Ten tribes) western Turkic Gahanate.

The earliest Hunnic ancestors of the Karaims to bear a recognizable form of their national ethnicon were in fact these Kermikhiones (Ermikhiones/Hermikhiones) mentioned by Theophanes of Byzantium as reported by Photios I of Constantinople. According to Theophanes the Kermikhiones were the Turks who made themselves known to the Greeks in 569AD and occupied the eastern banks of the Don river (Τανάϊδος) at the time of his report (567AD–591AD) having subdued the Kerkhis.

"To the east of the Tanais live Turks, formerly called Massagetai, whom the Persians in their language term Kermikhiones. These tribes sent envoys with gifts to the emperor Justin, asking him not to receive proposals from the Avars." (The bibliotheca)

These Kermikhiones were the remnant of the Red-Huns reported by the Persians who had come from the Kidara of Hunuk (Balk/Kush/Kabul) -the ancestors of the Hazara of Gandhara in North Afghanistan. In the name Kidara we may also see an ancestral form of the name Khazar.

Although liberated by the Gokturks, the On-Oq (Ten-Tribes) actually succeeded their short-lived Gahanate as part of the Western Turkic Gahanate. By the time of Gahan Hubrat Christianity had become accepted among the Crimean Huns but not in any form which would be recognizable today. Gahan Hubrat was the last independent ruler in the Western Turkic Gahanate of On-Oq (Ten Tribes). His son Gahan Batbayan paid tribute to a different family of the Western Turkic Khazaria (Onoq) in order to maintain some independence on the Crimean banks of the Phanagorian kingdom of Kermikhiones.

Thus the Ten Tribes were subsumed into the kingdom of Газария.

Concerning the language of the Kermikhiones it has been suggested that they were originally Finno-Ugric Cheremis (Çirmeş) under the influence of the Sauromatian Suvars of Khazaria who spoke a Kipchak language which resulted in the Oghuric languages like Chuvash. After Gahan Hubrat, a portion of the Crimean Hunno-Bulgars under the leadership of Kuber settled Keramisia. Those who remained in Crimea were more and more Kipchakified over time.

Although it is important therefore to make a distinction between the Karaim ethnicity, and the Karay religion which came later, considering all this history, it should come as no surprise therefore that when the Khazars were converted to the Karay faith by Isaac Ha-Sangari, they claimed to be descended from the lost Israelite tribes of Simeon (Шимойын) and Levi. Perhaps a billion or more people in the world could claim descent from the lost Ten tribes of Israel. The Karaims are unique because they remembered their ancestry as a result of adopting the religion of the Priestly Kereyler.

Керей хандығы

The conversion of the Khazars was a result of a migration of Karay priests from Khwarezmia. In accordance with the missionary beliefs of the Karay priesthood it was their duty to spread the teachings of Christ the prophet to all the lost Ten Tribes of Israel. From the Karay perspective, Imperial Christendom had generally lost the essence of Christ's teachings from its beginnings in the time of Pope Sylvester who seceded from the Desposyni in 318AD and his allay Emperor Constantine who outlawed Torah Observance in 333AD.

The Karay clergy first became distinct after they were forced out of Mount Izla near Nisibis into the Arabia following the death of Patriarch Catholicos Sabrisho I in 604AD suffering a short period of persecution at the hands of Babai's Persian Church. From 632 Khwarezm was their stronghold until the arrival of the Umayyids during the time of the Afrighid Shah Azkadjavar II (Asukdjavar).

Between 710AD and 712AD, the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I ibn Abd al-Malik's general Qotayba (Qutaibah) son of Moslem Baheli was invited by the Afrighid Shah Azkadjavar II (Asukdjavar) to secure his position against his brother Khurrazad and commander Hamagard who represented Karaylar.

Abu Rayhan Biruni states in the book that he believed that the main reason for this gap in information was that “ When Qutaibah bin Moslem under the command of Al-Hajjaj ibn Yūsuf was sent to Khwarazmia with a military expedition and conquered it for the second time, he swiftly killed whoever wrote in the Khwarazmian native language and knew of the Khwarazmian heritage, history, and culture. Next he killed all the Zoroastrians' priests and burned and wasted their books, until gradually only the illiterate remained, who knew nothing of writing, and hence the regions history was mostly forgotten.”

The survivors of the invasion fled to Khazaria. Abu Hanifa was only 13 at the time, but before he died, he had become so impressed by our religion that he was imprisoned for accepting it. In prison he commended it before he died to Anan ben David in 767AD, but with the rise of Umayyid Caliphism, our only safe haven turned out to be Khazaria where The Elk (Bulan) Sabriel became our Chief Gahan under the tutelage of the Karay (not Karaite Jewish) scholar Yitzhak ha-Sangari whose remains rest with his wife's in tombs in the Crimean Karaite graveyard although Judah Halevi, Nahmanides, and Shem Tov ibn Shem Tov all mistook for being a Jewish Rabbi.